THE BACKGROUND OF ARMENIA – AZERBAIJAN, AND GARABAKH CONFLICT

For last two hundred years as a result of the complicated political processes taking place in the region Azerbaijanians have been subjected to exile from their native land, ethnic cleaning, and policy of deportation. After the Gulustan (1813), Turkmenchay (1828) contracts signed between Iran and Russia and also the agreement Andrianapol concluded between Russia and Turkey, Armenians were moved on a mass scale from Turkey to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijanians, whose lands were grasped, were artificially turned to refugees and IDPs. Armenians realized their plan in stages. First, formed a small Armenian Republic (with the area of 9.7 thousand sq. km.) in the territory of Azerbaijan, that is in the Iravan khanate. Gradually they have expanded its area to 29.8 thousand sq. km.

The Azerbaijan which proclaimed its independence on May 28, 1918 again had to face the territorial claims of Armenian nationalists. The idea of creating an Armenian state in the territory of Irevan khanate, joined to Russia as Azerbaijan khanate was put forward. In that period, considering historical conditions, the Azerbaijan politicians had to go for certain concessions. As a result of the policy led by Armenian forces and nationalists an Armenian state the capital of which was Irevan was created on the Azerbaijan lands. In 1923 by the aid of Moscow, in territory of Upper Garabakh, where Armenians lived in few numbers, the Autonomous Province of Garabagh was formed.

After this, a new stage of violent exile of Azerbaijanians from native places and the policy of ethnic cleaning started. As a result, at the different periods of the 20th century about 2 millions of our compatriots have been expelled from their historical land, and, became IDPs because of the ethnic cleanings.

During the events occurring in 1905 - 1907, 19718 - 1920 thousands of Azerbaijanians were killed in mass order, the villages they lived were ruined, and the peaceful population was turned into refugees and IDPs with the help of armed forces and by using brutal methods.

On April 28, 1920, after the Azerbaijan Soviet government was formed Armenians still had not abandoned their dirty intentions and continued their territorial claims against Azerbaijan.

In this period Azerbaijan villages were included to Armenia with the pretext of frontier specification. And the local Azerbaijani population of these villages was made to leave their lands by different means.

According to the decision of the Ministry of the USSR of December 23, 1947 "On the resettlement of Armenian SSR collective farmers to the Kura–Araks lowland of Azerbaijan SSR”, nearby 150 thousand Azerbaijanis were made to leave their native places.

The historical falsification, its distortion, changing the historical names of the Azerbaijan lands, transformation of Armenia into a mono-ethnic state is an integral part of the aggressive policy followed by Armenia. In this way in 1935 - 1989 thousands of Azerbaijani place names were erased from cards.

After M. Gorbachev in 1985 was selected the head of the Soviet state, Armenians using his sympathy, stirred up their ideas about “Great Armenia". With special cruelty and barbarism did they realized their last ethnic cleaning policy against Azerbaijanis in the territory of Armenia in 1988 – 1992, 250 thousand of our compatriots were expelled from their native lands and became refugees.

Still in 1928-1930 the Armenians, living in Upper Garabakh, which is located in the central part of Azerbaijan repeatedly tried to tear away this region from Azerbaijan with the help of Russia.

In 1988, Armenian separatists leaning to their supporters, again put forward the problem of joining Upper Garabakh, an integral part of Azerbaijan to Armenia.

As a result of the military aggression and 20 % of our land – Upper Garabakh, and also adjoining to it 7 regions (Aghdam, Fizuli, Lachin, Gubadli, Jabrail, Zangelan and Kalbajar) was occupied by Armenian armed forces and around 1 million of our compatriots became refugees and IDPs.

In 1993 The Security Council of the United Nations has accepted resolution no. 822, 853, 874, 884 for the soon peaceful solution of the conflict, release of the grasped lands, and return of refugees and IDPs to their native lands. But Armenia has not executed any of these resolutions

About one million refugees and IDPs emerged in Azerbaijan as a result of the military aggression and the occupation of 20 % of our land by the Armenian armed forces in 1988 - 1992, embodied measures, to improve their social and living conditions, current needs and other sort of data is placed in the booklet.

 
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In 1990 besides 250 thousand Azerbaijanis 50 thousand Meskheti Turks from Central Asia also found asylum in Azerbaijan at the result of the policy of last ethnic cleaning realized by Armenia in 1988 – 1992.

As a result of the military aggression and 20 % of our land – Upper Garabakh, and also adjoining to it 7 regions was occupied by Armenian armed forces and around 1 million of our compatriots became refugees and IDPs. In Upper Garabakh, adjoining to it areas, and regions of boundary with Armenia and Upper Garabakh about 700 thousand the compatriots were deprived of their constant places of residence, and turned into IDPs. They are temporarily settled in 62 cities and regions of the Republic in more than 1600 densely populated objects of settlement.

Including Upper Garabakh and adjoining to it areas, 1 village of 2 invaded villages of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, 80 of 81 invaded villages of Aghdam area, 54 of 76 invaded villages of Fizuli area, 13 villages of Tartar area and 6 of 12 invaded villages of the Gazakh area l are still under occupation .

Besides, there are more than 3 thousand persons in Azerbaijan intending to get of refugee status (looking for asylum). Majority of them are radical Chechens – the citizens of Russia, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Palestine.

Thus, there are about one million refugees IDPs and people intending to receive refugee status (looking for asylum).
 
 
idpsCopyright © 2008
STATE COMMITTEE ON
REFUGEES AND IDPS ISSUES
OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN
The address of committee: Baku, Tbilisi Ave., 129
Tel/fax: (99412) 430 09 21, 430 09 25
Email: info@refugee.gov.az